Education Inequity: Homework and its Negative Impact on Students
Schools are getting rid of homework from Essex, Mass., to Los Angeles, Calif. Although the no homework trend may sound alarming, especially to parents dreaming of their child’s acceptance to Harvard or Yale. There is mounting evidence that eliminating homework in grade school may actually have great benefits, especially in regard to education equity.
In fact, while eliminating homework may come as a surprise to many of us, the debate is not new. Parents and educators have been debating the subject for the last century, swinging the educational pendulum back and forth between the need for homework and the need to eliminate homework.
The Problem with Homework: It Highlights Inequalities
One of the great, yet often forgotten problems with homework is how it disproportionately affects students from less affluent families. The American Psychological Association (APA) explained:
“Kids from wealthier homes are more likely to have resources such as computers, internet connections, dedicated areas to do schoolwork and parents who tend to be more educated and more available to help them with tricky assignments. Kids from disadvantaged homes are more likely to work at afterschool jobs, or to be home without supervision in the evenings while their parents work multiple jobs.”
While students growing up in more affluent areas are likely playing sports, participating in other recreational activities after school, or receiving additional tutoring, children in disadvantaged areas are more likely headed to work after school, taking care of siblings while their parents work or dealing with an unstable home life. Adding homework into the mix is one more thing to deal with — and if the student is struggling, the task of completing homework can be too much to consider at the end of an already long school day.
While all students may groan at the mention of homework, it may be more than just a nuisance for poor and disadvantaged children, instead becoming another burden to carry and contend with.
Beyond the logistical issues, homework can negatively impact physical health and stress — and once again this may be a more significant problem among economically disadvantaged youth who typically have a higher stress level than their non-poor peers to begin with.
Yet, today, it is not just the disadvantaged who suffer from the stressors that homework inflicts. A CNN story, Is Homework Making Your Child Sick, covered the issue of extreme pressure on children of the affluent and looked at the results of a study surveying more than 4,300 students from 10 high-performing public and private high schools in upper-middle-class California communities.
“The findings were troubling: Research showed that excessive homework is associated with high stress levels, physical health problems and lack of balance in children’s lives; 56% of the students in the study cited homework as a primary stressor in their lives.
That children growing up in poverty are at-risk for a number of ailments is both intuitive and well-supported by research. More difficult to believe is the growing consensus that children on the other end of the spectrum, children raised in affluence, may also be at risk.”
When it comes to health and stress it is clear that excessive homework, for children at both ends of the spectrum, can be damaging. Which begs the question, how much homework is too much homework?
How Much Homework Is Too Much Homework?
The National Education Association and the National Parent Teacher Association recommend that students spend 10 minutes per grade level per night. That means that first graders should spend 10 minutes on homework, second graders 20 minutes and so on. But a study published by The American Journal of Family Therapy found that students are getting much more than that.
While 10 minutes per day doesn’t sound like much, that quickly adds up to an hour per night by 6th grade. The National Center for Education Statistics found that high school students get an average of 6.8 hours of homework per week. A figure, that is much too high according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It is also to be noted that this figure does not take into consideration the needs of the underprivileged student population.
In a study conducted by the OECD it was found that “after around four hours of homework per week, the additional time invested in homework has a negligible impact on performance.” That means that by asking our children to put in an hour or more per day of dedicated homework time, we are not only not helping them, but according to the aforementioned studies — we are hurting them, both physically and emotionally.
What’s more is that homework is, as the name implies, to be completed at home, after a full day of learning — which is typically around six to seven hours long with breaks and lunch included. However, a study by the APA on how people develop expertise found that elite musicians, scientists and athletes do their most productive work for about only four hours per day. Similarly, companies like Tower Paddle Boards are experimenting with a five-hour work day, under the assumption that people are not able to be truly productive for much longer than that. CEO Stephan Aarstol told CNBC that he believes most Americans only get about two to three hours of work done in an eight-hour day.
How Teachers Can Help
In order to help students find the right balance and succeed, teachers and educators must start the homework conversation, both internally at their school and with parents. But in order to successfully advocate on behalf of students, teachers must be well educated on the subject, fully understanding the research and the outcomes that can be had by eliminating or reducing the homework burden. There is a plethora of research and writing on the subject for those interested in self-study. For teachers looking for a more in-depth approach or for educators with a keen interest in education equity, formal education may be the best route. If this latter option sounds appealing, there are now many reputable schools offering online masters of education programs to help educators balance the demands of work and family life while furthering their education in the quest to help others.
By Michele McConnell, M.Ed.
Michele McConnell serves as the Academic Director for the online Master of Education at the University of San Diego. Previously, Michele served as the Assistant Director of Field Experiences in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences where she worked with teacher candidates for field placements. In addition, Michele teaches English methodologies courses and online courses for the M.Ed. program. Prior to that, Michele served as a Peer Assistance and Review Consulting teacher for the San Diego Unified School District, a high school English teacher, BTSA Support Provider, and taught English courses at local community colleges. Michele earned her Masters of Education in Literacy and Reading from San Diego State University, and her Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Washington. She is currently pursuing her Ph.D. in Leadership.